Luxembourg

Driving Directions Luxembourg

LUXEMBOURG is entirely landlocked, bounded by France in the south, Belgium in the west, and Germany in the east. The northern part of the country is a wooded plateau, known as the Oesling, rising to 550 meters or 1,804 feet.

This region is a continuation of the forested hills of the Ardennes Plateau, where Luxembourg’s high­est peak, Buurgplatz (559 meters or 1,835 feet), is situated.

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Lithuania

Driving Directions Lithuania

LITHUANIA is the largest of the three former Soviet Baltic Republics. Lithuania is bounded by Latvia, Belarus, Poland, and Russia (Kaliningrad) with a Baltic Sea coastline to the west.

Lithuania is a country of plains, broken by low hills with numerous rivers and lakes and many marshes and wetlands, some of which drained. The upland areas are generally to be found in the west, while the majority of the lakes are in the southern and northeastern parts of the republic.

The Neman River, with its tributaries, forms part of the border with Russia and supplies the country with hydroelectric power. Over two-thirds of the country’s people live in cities, towns or urban areas. Vilnius is Lithuania’s capital and largest city.

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Liechtenstein

Driving Directions Liechtenstein

LIECHTENSTEIN is a small independent state sandwiched between Switzerland in the north, west, and south and Austria in the east. Liechtenstein is a hereditary, constitutional monarchy whose population shares many links with their near neigh­bours in Switzerland, Germany, and Austria. German is the official lan­guage within the principality, but a dialect called Alemannish is also in everyday use.

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Latvia

Driving Directions Latvia

LATVIA, a former constituent republic of the USSR, is a republic in northeastern Europe that shares borders with Estonia, Russia, Belarus, and Lithuania. It is, bounded in the west by the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Riga, itself a large inlet of the Baltic Sea.

Most of the country consists of a wooded lowland plain with numerous marshy areas and lakes. Inland and eastwards, there is some more hilly, forested country and towards the eastern border, there are more marshes, woodlands, and lakes.

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Italy

Driving Directions Italy

ITALY is a republic in southern Europe, which comprises a large penin­sula and the two main islands of Sicily (Sicilia) and Sardinia (Sardegna). The huge peaks of the Alps and the Dolomites form Italy’s northern bor­der with France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia.

Towards the foothills of the mountains lie several large lakes, of which the most famous are Maggiore, Como, and Garda. The Adriatic Sea to the east separates Italy from the countries of former Yugoslavia. The fertile Plain of Lombardy lies to the south of the Alps. Numerous rivers rise in the north­ern mountains, and many become tributaries of the great River Po, which flows eastwards and drains the Lombardy Plain before emptying into the Adriatic Sea.

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Iceland

Driving Directions Iceland

ICELAND is located in the North Atlantic Ocean about 298 kilometers or 186 miles east of Greenland and just south of the Arctic Circle. The island is roughly oval with the deeply indented coastline and numerous fjords and bays – a large, broad peninsula projects from the northwestern corner of the island.

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Hungary

Driving Directions Hungary

HUNGARY is a landlocked country sharing borders with Austria, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, and Ukraine. It is a region of plains ringed by the high mountain ranges of neighboring countries.

The main topographical feature is the Great Plain or Great Alföld, which is sit­uated east of the River Danube and extends southwards and eastwards across Hungary’s borders. North of the Great Plain, near the Hungarian border, there are several upland areas. A smaller Little Plain or Little Alföld occurs in the northwest and continues into southern Slovakia.

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Greece

Driving Directions Greece

GREECE or the Hellenic Republic consists of a mainland portion and more than 1,400 islands. Mainland Greece occupies the southernmost portion of the Balkans Peninsula and shares borders with Albania in the northwest, with Macedonia (FYROM) and Bulgaria in the north and with Turkey in the northeast. The Aegean Sea lies to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Ionian Sea to the west.

The Ionian Islands (lonioi Nisoi), including Corfu (Kerkira), lie off the coast of the western mainland in the Ionian Sea. The remaining Greek islands scattered throughout the Aegean Sea. They include the Cyclades (Kikladhes) group in the southeast, Crete (Kriti) in the south, the Dodecanese group (Dhodhekanisos), including Rhodes (Rodhos), just west of mainland Turkey, the northern Aegean Islands, such a Thásos, Limnos and Lésvós, and the Northern Sporades (Voriai Sporhadhes), situated off the eastern coast of Greece. In general, the islands are quite arid, hilly, and stony with thin soils that are difficult to cultivate.

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Gibraltar

Driving Directions Gibraltar

GIBRALTAR, or “The Rock”, is a limestone promontory situated at the end of a peninsula that forms the south­ernmost tip of Spain.

Its strategic importance, guarding as it makes the western approaches to the Mediterranean and separated from Morocco by the narrow Straits of Gibraltar, has meant that it has had a fascinating human history stretching back over thousands of years to Neolithic times.

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Germany

Driving Directions Germany

GERMANY is a large populous country in northern central Europe, which comprises the former East and West German Republics, reunified in 1990. In the north, lies the North German Plain, which merges with the North Rhineland in the west. Further south, a plateau that stretches across the country from east to west, is divided by the River Rhine. In the southwest, the Black Forest Mountains, or Schwarzwald, separate the Rhine Valley from the fertile valleys and scarp lands of Swabia. The Bavarian Forest is in the southeast, approaching the border with the Czech Republic. The Bohemian Uplands and Erz Mountains mark the bor­der with the Czech Republic. The beautiful River Danube, the second-longest river in Europe, rises in the Bavarian Alps and crosses most of southern Germany.

Germany’s most famous river, however, is the mighty Rhine, which flows along the border with Switzerland and France before heading northwards towards the Netherlands and the North Sea.

The Rhine has several large and important tributaries, including the Neckar, Main, Lahn, Mosel, Ruhr, and Lippe, and is a major navigable waterway used for the transportation of considerable amounts of freight. Because of heavy industrial development along much of the length of the Rhine valley, there are considerable problems with water pollution. Efforts continue to make, however, to address this situation and to improve water quality.

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