San Marino

Driving Directions San Marino

SAN MARINO is a tiny landlocked republic in central Italy, lying in the Apennine Mountain’s eastern foothills. It is one of two small, independent enclaves (the Vatican City being the other), surrounded by Italy’s country, which had survived from the time when the region consisted of autonomous city-states. Given Italy’s turbulent history and the fact that the larger, more powerful states tended to swallow up the smaller ones, San Marino’s survival is truly remarkable.

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Russia

Driving Directions Russia

RUSSIA is the largest single country globally, extending into two continents and around almost half of the globe. Mainland Russia stretches from the Gulf of Finland in the west to the Pacific Ocean’s shores in the east and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Caucasus in the south. Russian territory also includes several large islands and the enclave of Kaliningrad (bordering the Baltic Sea, Poland, and Lithuania).

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Romania

Driving Directions Romania

ROMANIA is located in southeast Europe and bordered by Ukraine, Moldova, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Hungary. In the southeast, the republic’s coastline stretches for approximately 200 kilometers or 125 miles along the Black Sea’s shores.

The Carpathian Mountains run through the north, east, and center of Romania and dominate most countries. The Carpathians are geologically unstable, and Romania period­ically experiences severe earthquakes.

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Portugal

Driving Directions Portugal

PORTUGAL, in the southwest corner of Europe, makes up about 15 percent of the Iberian Peninsula. It includes the island groups of Madeira and the Azores in the Atlantic.

Lying to the west of Spain, mainland Portugal has a long Atlantic coastline and is mountainous only in the north, where the mountain ranges are lower extensions of those in Spain. The highest peaks occur north of the River Tejo (Tajo in Spain) in the Sierra da Estrela, reaching a height of 2,000 meters or 6,562 feet. South of the Tejo river lies the wheat fields and cork plantations of the Alentejo region’s extensive plains.

A range breaks these hills that divide them from the coastal plain of the Algarve, with its beautiful groves of almond, fig, and olive trees.

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Poland

Driving Directions Poland

POLAND is situated on the North European Plain with a Baltic Sea coastline. It shares borders with Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Russia (Kaliningrad) to the north, and Belarus and Ukraine to the east.

Poland consists mainly of lowlands. A low-lying narrow coastal plain of sandy beaches and dunes forms most of the Baltic Sea coastline in the north.

The low-lying wooded hills and valleys of the Baltic Heights region lie further inland and then come to the extensive central lowlands, which are crossed by numerous rivers and streams in a series of shallow valleys. There is a region of uplands and valleys in the south, and then the land rises more steeply to form the Sudeten Mountains and ranges of the Carpathian Mountains.

The Plain of Silesia lies in the southwest beyond the Sudeten Mountains.

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Norway

Driving Directions Norway

NORWAY is a constitutional monarchy occupying the western part of the Scandinavian Peninsula in northern Europe. Most of Norway’s eastern boundary shared with Sweden, but in the northeast, the border is with Finland and, for a short distance, with Russia.

In the far north, Norway’s coastline runs along the Barents Sea, which is part of the Arctic Ocean, and the upper third of the country lies within the Arctic Circle. The Norwegian Sea or the North Sea bounds the country’s long western coast, and, in total, the coastline extends for some 2,720-kilo­meters or 1,700 miles. In the southeast, the extension of the North Sea called the Skagerrak separates southern Norway from Denmark.

Five political/geographical regions recognized in Norway. These are North Norway, Trondelag, Vestlandet, Sorlandet, and 0stlandet.

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Netherlands

Driving Directions Netherlands

NETHERLANDS, also known as Holland, forms one of the Benelux or Low Countries and Belgium and Luxembourg. It is bounded in the north and west by the North Sea, in the east by Germany, and in the south by Belgium. The Netherlands is a very low-lying country, and the slightly higher ground is found only in the southern extremity where the land rises towards the foothills of the Ardennes. The Netherlands has mild winters and cool summers.

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Moldova

Driving Directions Moldova

MOLDOVA is a landlocked, somewhat triangular­shaped republic in southeast Europe that, from 1940 to 1991, was part of the USSR and was called the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. It is bordered by Romania in the west and bounded on all other sides by Ukraine. The River Prut forms the western boundary with Romania, while the River Dnister (Nistru) flows close to the eastern bor­der and coincides with it in the northeast and southeast.

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Malta

Driving Directions Malta

MALTA, situated in the Mediterranean Sea, approximately 288 kilome­tres or 180 miles east of North Africa (Tunisia) and 93 kilometers or 58 miles south of Sicily, is an archipelago of three large inhabited islands and two small uninhabited ones, which together form an independent country of over 376,000 people.

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