Google Maps™ driving directions home » Europe


Rivers in Europe
European rivers

Europe, the second smallest continent, is densely populated and divided into many different countries, reflecting the enormously varied physical, ethnic, cultural, and economic nature of the area.

Defining the correct border between the two continents was a big question for European geographers and politicians. The Ural Mountains are commonly delineated in Russia, the Caspian Sea, and the Caucasus Mountains.

With its 51 independent states, Europe is not surrounded by water from all directions and has an overland border with neighboring Asia. Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey are transcontinental countries; they are partially located in Europe and Asia. Armenia and Cyprus are politically considered European countries, though geographically, these countries are located in the West Asia territory.

Europe’s Southern coast fringes the Mediterranean Sea, which is bounded west by the Atlantic Ocean. The northern countries of Norway, Sweden, and Finland extend inside the Arctic Circle.

Countries of Europe

The European countries are Albania (capital: Tirana), Andorra (capital: Andorra la Vella), Austria (capital: Vienna), Belarus (capital: Minsk), Belgium (capital: Brussels), Bosnia and Herzegovina (capital: Sarajevo), Bulgaria (capital: Sofia), Croatia (capital: Zagreb), Cyprus (capital: Nicosia), Czech Republic (capital: Prague), Denmark (capital: Copenhagen), Estonia (capital: Tallinn), Finland (capital: Helsinki), France (capital: Paris), Germany (capital: Berlin), Greece (capital: Athens), Hungary (capital: Budapest), Iceland (capital: Reykjavík), Ireland (capital: Dublin), Italy (capital: Rome), Kosovo (capital: Pristina), Latvia (capital: Riga), Liechtenstein (capital: Vaduz), Lithuania (capital: Vilnius), Luxembourg (capital: Luxembourg), Macedonia (capital: Skopje), Malta (capital: Valletta), Moldova (capital: Chişinău), Monaco (capital: Monaco), Montenegro (capital: Podgorica), Netherlands (capital: Amsterdam), Norway (capital: Oslo), Poland (capital: Warsaw), Portugal (capital: Lisbon), Romania (capital: Bucharest), Russia (capital: Moscow), San Marino (capital: San Marino), Serbia (capital: Belgrade), Slovakia (capital: Bratislava), Slovenia (capital: Ljubljana), Spain (capital: Madrid), Sweden (capital: Stockholm), Switzerland (capital: Bern), Türkiye (Turkey, capital: Ankara), Ukraine (capital: Kiev), United Kingdom (capital: London), Vatican (capital: Vatican City).

Google Maps Europe

The boundaries of Europe owe as much to history and political considerations as they do to geography. Hence, although a part of the European continent, Russia is generally regarded politically as a separate entity, bordering southwards and eastwards with the countries of Asia. However, geographers usually draw the line dividing Europe from Asia down the Ural Mountains and then westwards and southwards to the Caspian and Black Seas. Since the collapse of communism, Russia’s former East European allies are now politically and geographically regarded as more truly a part of Europe.

Europe map
Political map of Europe

Europe has some very fertile land, but the continent is too small and densely populated to be self-supporting in food. However, it has the greatest concentration of industry of all the continents. The largest cities are Paris and Moscow, with over eight millión inhabitants, followed by London, St Petersburg, and Berlin. The western countries of Europe are among the wealthiest countries in the world.

There is a great variety of landscapes within Europe with a lot of climate variation. The highest peaks are in the Alps, while north of these, the land is flatter until the far north, where Norway and Sweden make up the cold, mountainous Scandinavian Peninsula. Areas in the far south, such as the mountains and plateaus of Spam and the many islands that make up Greece, are much hotter and drier with limited rainfall.

Europe has so much to offer the traveler, from its many beautiful and varied locations with their flora and fauna to its exciting modern cities and many different cultures to places steeped in history.

The Alps

The Alps stretch from eastern France through northern Italy, Southern Germany, Switzerland, and Lichtenstein to Austria and northern Slovenia. The highest peak is Mont Blanc (4,785 meters or 15,700 feet), straddling the border between Italy and France. Other famous peaks include the towering Matterhorn (4,477 meters or 14,688 feet) and the Eiger (3,970 meters or 13,025 feet). The Alps have always been a barrier to communication, although necessary natural passes, such as the Brenner Pass, provide vital road and rail links.

The Pyrenees

The Pyrenees straddle the border, forming a natural barrier between France and Spain. They stretch for roughly 400 kilometers (250 miles) from the territory of the Basque people in the west to the Mediterranean coast. Some peaks rise to 1,524 meters or 5,000 feet in height, the greatest being Pico de Aneto (3,404 meters or 11,169 feet).

The Pyrenees are physically beautiful, culturally varied, and less developed than the Alps. The whole range is a marvelous country for walkers, especially in the Central region around the Parc National des Pyrenees with its 3000-meter peaks, streams and forests, flowers and wildlife, and some 350 kilometers or 217 miles of marked routes. The hiking season is from mid-June to September.

Major rivers in Europe


Beginning in the Black Forest region of Germany, it flows across central Europe and the countries of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, and Yugoslavia. It forms the border between Romania and Bulgaria, turning north across Romania to eventually end in the Black Sea.

It’s (1,771 miles) (2,850 km) in length and is one of the most significant commercial waterways on the continent.


Rising in the southwestern part of the Russian Federation, it generally flows south through Belarus, then southeast through Ukraine, ending in the Black Sea. It’s (1,420 miles) (2,285 km) in length.


To the south of Moscow, the southwestern Russian Federation flows southeasterly towards the Volga, then turns abruptly west, ending in the Sea of Azov. It’s (1,224 miles) (1,969 km) in length.


Rising in the Czech Republic, the Elbe River flows north through Germany, ending in the North Sea near Cuxhaven. It’s (724 miles) (1,165 km) in length.


Recognized as the longest river in France, the navigable Loire begins in the foothills of the Massif Central, then flows north and west across the heartland of France, finally ending in the Bay of Biscay. It’s (634 miles) (1,020 km) in length.


Rising in the rugged mountains of the eastern Czech Republic, it flows west and north through south-central Poland, eventually emptying into the Baltic Sea. It’s (567 miles) (912 km) in length.


Italy’s longest river begins in the upper reaches of the Alps, flows west to east across northern Italy, and ends in the Adriatic Sea. It’s (405 miles) (652 km) in length.


Forming in the mountains of southeastern Switzerland, this legendary river flows west, forming Switzerland’s northeastern border with Germany, then runs directly north through western Germany, forming part of that country’s border with France, then finally dissecting the Netherlands and ending in the North Sea.

Numerous tributaries and branches run in all directions, and an overall length is (820 miles) (1,319 km).


Begin high in the Swiss Alps; this fast-moving river flows into the eastern end of Lake Geneva, then south through south-eastern France, emptying into the Mediterranean Sea.

Small branches run in all directions, and its overall length is (300 miles) (485 km).


Rising in northwestern Ireland, it flows south through a series of lakes and then eventually turns west to empty into the Atlantic Ocean. It’s 230 miles (370 km) in length.


The Tagus River rises in the central highlands of Spain, flowing southwest across Portugal, then south to Lisbon and the Atlantic Ocean. It’s 626 miles (1,007 km) in length.


The Volga is the largest river in European Russia in length, discharge, and watershed. It flows through central Russia and is widely viewed as Russia’s national river. It’s 3,692 km (2,294 mi) long.

Did You Know?

  1. Smallest Continent by Area: Europe is the second smallest continent by area, covering about 10.18 million square kilometers (3.93 million square miles). Despite its small size, it profoundly influences global culture, economics, and politics.
  2. Birthplace of Western Civilization: Europe is often considered the birthplace of Western civilization. Ancient Greece is credited with the foundation of Western philosophy, democracy, literature, and mathematics, while Ancient Rome contributed significantly to law, politics, and engineering.
  3. Home to the World’s Smallest Country: Vatican City, located within Rome, Italy, is the world’s smallest country by area, measuring just 44 hectares (110 acres). It is the spiritual and administrative center of the Roman Catholic Church.
  4. Diverse Languages: Europe is incredibly diverse linguistically, with over 200 languages spoken across the continent. This diversity results from the continent’s complex history and varying ethnic groups.
  5. The Longest River: The Volga River in Russia is the longest river in Europe, stretching for about 3,692 kilometers (2,294 miles). It plays a crucial role in Russia’s economy and is central to Russian folklore and culture.
  6. Rich in UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Europe has more UNESCO World Heritage Sites than any other continent, reflecting its rich history and cultural significance. These include historical landmarks, cities, and natural wonders.
  7. Aurora Borealis: The Northern Lights, or Aurora Borealis, is a natural light display predominantly seen in high-latitude regions around the Arctic, including northern parts of Scandinavia. This spectacular phenomenon is caused by disturbances in the magnetosphere caused by solar wind.
  8. Oldest Inhabited City: Plovdiv in Bulgaria is considered to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Europe and the world, with evidence of habitation dating back over 6,000 years.
  9. Europe’s Microstates: Apart from Vatican City, Europe has several other microstates, including Monaco, San Marino, Liechtenstein, and Andorra, each with its unique character and governance.
  10. Highest Mountain: Mount Elbrus in Russia is the highest mountain in Europe. It reaches 5,642 meters (18,510 feet) above sea level in the Caucasus mountain range.

These fascinating facts about Europe highlight the continent’s rich cultural heritage, diverse languages, unique geographical features, and historical significance, making it a key player in global affairs and a treasure trove of cultural and natural wonders.