Major infectious diseases list major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases is very high compared to the United States. These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of fewer than three years. The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases present. The diseases listed do not necessarily represent the total disease burden experienced by the local population.
Diseases are organized into the following exposure categories listed in typical descending order of risk. Note: The sequence of exposure categories listed in individual country profiles may vary according to local conditions.
Food or waterborne diseases: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis E, Typhoid fever.
Vectorborne diseases: Malaria, Dengue fever, Yellow fever, Japanese Encephalitis, African Trypanosomiasis, Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Plague, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever, Chikungunya.
Water contact diseases: Leptospirosis, Schistosomiasis.
Aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever
Respiratory disease: Meningococcal meningitis.
Animal contact disease: Rabies.