Chad

Location: Central Africa Official name: Republic of Chad Formation (date of independence / date current borders were established): 1960 / 1960 Capital city: N’Djamena Population: 11.5 million / 24 people per sq mile (9 people per sq km) Total land area: 495,752 square miles (1,284,000 square km) Language(s) spoken: French (official language), Sara, Arabic (official … Read more

Charney Effect

Observed by an atmospheric scientist named Charney, the less plant cover there is on the ground, the higher the albedo-solar energy deflected back into the atmosphere.

Chechnya

One of the republics that remains a part of Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union despite independence movements and violent upheaval.

Chemical weathering

A process that changes rock into a new substance through interactions among elements in the air or water and the minerals in the rock.

Chemocline

The boundary between lower, carbon dioxide-laden waters and higher, gas-free, fresh water in some African lakes. The puncture of this boundary can cause fatal eruptions to humans and other life around the lakes.

Chernobyl

Ukraine, the site where, in April 1986, the worst nuclear power plant accident in history occurred.

Chernozem

Black topsoil, one of the world’s most fertile soils.

Chile

Location: South America Official name: Republic of Chile Formation (date of independence / date current borders were established): 1818 / 1883 Capital city: Santiago Population: 17.1 million / 59 people per sq mile (23 people per sq km) Total land area: 292,258 square miles (756,950 square km) Language(s) spoken: Spanish (official language), Amerindian Language(s) spoken: … Read more

China

Location: East Asia Official name: People’s Republic of China Formation (date of independence / date current borders were established): 960 / 1999 Capital city: Beijing Population: 1.35 billion / 376 people per sq mile (145 people per sq km) Total land area: 3,705,386 square miles (9,596,960 square km) Language(s) spoken: Mandarin (official language), Wu, Cantonese, … Read more

Chokepoint

A strategic narrow passageway on land or sea may be closed off by force or threat.

Cholera

A treatable infectious disease can be fatal and is caused by a lack of adequate sanitation and a clean water supply.

Choropleth maps

Maps are drawn to show the differing distribution of goods or geographic characteristics (including population) across a broad area.

Christianity

Descending from Judaism, Christianity’s central belief maintains Jesus of Nazareth is the promised messiah of the Hebrew Scriptures and that his life, death, and resurrection are salvific for the world. Christianity is one of the three monotheistic Abrahamic faiths and Islam and Judaism, which traces its spiritual lineage to Abraham of the Hebrew Scriptures. Its sacred texts include the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament (or the Christian Gospels).

Chunnel

(Eurotunnel) The 16-mile (26-km) tunnel links Britain with the European continent. It was completed in 1994 at the cost of more than $15 billion, making it the single most costly landscape transformation project ever undertaken.