Acid rain

Gases from factories and traffic have polluted the rain; when the rain falls, it can damage crops, forests, and lakes.

Adaptive reuse

Finding new uses for older buildings and stores, often accompanied by a shift from decline to steady renewal in an urban neighborhood.

Advanced economies

A term used by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for the top group in its hierarchy of advanced economies, countries in transition, and developing countries.

AFESD

Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development was established on 16 May 1968. Its aim to promote economic and social development for its members.

Afghanistan

Location: Central Asia Official name: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Formation (date of independence / date current borders were established): 1919 / 1919 Capital city: Kabul Population: 29.1 million / 116 people per sq mile (45 people per sq km) Total land area: 250,000 square miles (647,500 square km) Language(s) spoken: Pashtu (official language), Tajik, Dari … Read more

Africa

Africa is the world’s second-largest continent with a total area of 11,712,434 sq miles (30,335,000 sq km). It has 54 separate countries, including Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. It straddles the equator and is the only continent to stretch from the northern to southern temperate zones. Learn more about Africa here.

African Trypanosomiasis

The African Trypanosomiasis is caused by the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma, transmitted to humans via the bite of bloodsucking Tsetse flies.

Age of Discovery

(Age of Exploration) The three to four centuries of European exploration, colonization, and global resource exploitation and trading led largely by European mercantile powers.

Albania

Location: Southeast Europe Official name: Republic of Albania Formation (date of independence / date current borders were established): 1912 / 1921 Capital city: Tirana Population: 3.2 million / 302 people per sq mile (117 people per sq km) Total land area: 11,100 square miles (28,748 square km) Language(s) spoken: Albanian (official language), Greek Main religions: … Read more

Albedo

The amount of the sun’s energy reflected by the ground.