Europe

Google map & Driving Directions

Rivers in Europe
Map of European rivers

Europe, the second smallest continent, is densely populated and divided into many different countries which reflect the enormously varied physical, ethnic, cultural and economic nature of the area.

Europe’s Southern coast fringes the Mediterranean Sea and it is bounded to the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The northern countries of Norway, Sweden and Finland extend inside the Arctic Circle.

The boundaries of Europe owe as much to history and political considerations as they do to geography. Hence Russia, although a part of the European continent, is generally regarded politically as a separate entity, bordering southwards and eastwards with the countries of Asia. However, geographers usually draw the line dividing Europe from Asia down the Ural Mountains and then westwards and southwards to the Caspian and Black Seas. Since the collapse of communism, Russia’s former East European allies are now politically, as well as geographically, being regarded as more truly a part of Europe.

Political map of Europe
Political map of Europe

Europe has some very fertile land but the continent is too small and densely populated to be self-supporting in food. It does, however, have the greatest concentration of industry of all the continents. The largest cities are Paris and Moscow, both with over eight millión inhabitants, followed by London, St Petersburg and Berlin. The western countries of Europe are among the richest countries in the world.

There is a great variety of landscapes within Europe with a lot of climate variation as a result. The highest peaks are in the Alps while north of these the land is flatter until the far north where Norway and Sweden make up the cold, mountainous Scandinavian Peninsula. Areas in the far south, such as the mountains and plateaus of Spam and the many islands that go to make up Greece, are much hotter and drier with limited rainfall.

Europe has so much to offer the traveller, from its many beautiful and varied locations with their own flora and fauna, to its exciting modern cities and many different cultures, to places steeped in history.

The Alps

The Alps stretch from eastern France through northern Italy, Southern Germany, Switzerland, Lichtenstein to Austria and northern Slovenia. The highest peak is Mont Blanc (4,785 metres or 15,700 feet), which straddles the bordér between Italy and France. Other famous peaks include the towering Matterhorn (4,477 metres or 14,688 feet) and the Eiger (3,970 metres or 13,025 feet). The Alps have always been a barrier to commumcation although important natural passes, such as the Brenner Pass, provide vitai road and rail links.

The Pyrenees

The Pyrenees straddle the border and form a natural barrier between France and Spain. They stretch for roughly 400 kilometres (250 miles) from the territory of the Basque people in the west to the Mediterranean coast. Some of the peaks rise to 1,524 metres or 5,000 feet in height, the greatest being Pico de Aneto (3,404 metres or 11,169 feet).

The Pyrenees are physically beautiful, culturally varied and a great deal less developed than the Alps. The whole range is a marvellous country for walkers, especially in the Central region around the Parc National des Pyrenees with its 3000-metre peaks, streams and forests, flowers and wildlife, and some 350 kilometres or 217 miles of marked routes. The hiking season is from mid-June to September.

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TitleDescription
Albania Located: Southeast Europe
Official name: Republic of Albania
Formation: 1912 / 1921
Capital: Tirana
Population: 3.2 million / 302 people per sq mile (117 people per sq km)
Total area :11,100 sq. miles (28,748 sq. km)
Languages: Albanian*, Greek
Religions: Sunni Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
Ethnic: mix Albanian 98%, Greek 1%, Other 1%
Government Parliamentary system
Currency: Lek = 100 qindarka (qintars)
Literacy rate: 96%
Calorie consumption: 2903 kilocalories
Andorra Located: Southwest Europe
Official name: Principality of Andorra
Formation: 1278 / 1278
Capital: Andorra la Vella
Population: 85,082 / 473 people per sq mile (183 people per sq km)
Total area: 181 sq. miles (468 sq. km)
Languages: Spanish, Catalan, French, Portuguese
Religions: Roman Catholic 94%, Other 6%
Ethnic mix: Spanish 46%, Andorran 28%, Other 18%, French 8%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: Not available
Austria Located: Central Europe
Official name: Republic of Austria
Formation: 1918 / 1919
Capital: Vienna
Population: 8.4 million / 263 people per sq mile (102 people per sq km)
Total area: 32,378 sq. miles (83,858 sq. km)
Languages: German*, Croatian, Slovenian, Hungarian (Magyar)
Religions: Roman Catholic 78%, Nonreligious 9%, Other (including Jewish and Muslim) 8%, Protestant 5%
Ethnic mix: Austrian 93%, Croat, Slovene, and Hungarian 6%, Other 1%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3800 kilocalories
Belarus Located: Eastern Europe
Official name: Republic of Belarus
Formation: 1991 / 1991
Capital: Minsk
Population: 9.6 million / 120 people per sq mile (46 people per sq km)
Total area: 80,154 sq. miles (207,600 sq. km)
Languages: Belarussian*, Russian*
Religions: Orthodox Christian 80%, Roman Catholic 14%, Other 4%, Protestant 2%
Ethnic mix: Belarussian 81%, Russian 11%, Polish 4%, Ukrainian 2%, Other 2%
Government: Presidential system
Currency: Belarussian rouble = 100 kopeks
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3186 kilocalories
Belgium Located: Northwest Europe
Official name: Kingdom of Belgium
Formation: 1830 / 1919
Capital: Brussels
Population: 10.8 million / 852 people per sq mile (329 people per sq km)
Total area: 11,780 sq. miles (30,510 sq. km)
Languages: Dutch, French, German
Religions: Roman Catholic 88%, Other 10%, Muslim 2%
Ethnic mix: Fleming 58%, Walloon 33%, Other 6%, Italian 2%, Moroccan 1%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3721 kilocalories
Bosnia and Herzegovina Located: Southeast Europe
Official name: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Formation: 1992 / 1992
Capital: Sarajevo
Population: 3.8 million / 192 people per sq mile (74 people per sq km)
Total area: 19,741 sq. miles (51,129 sq. km)
Languages: Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian
Religions: Muslim (mainly Sunni) 40%, Orthodox Christian: 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Other 10%, Protestan:t 4%
Ethnic mix: Bosniak 48%, Serb 34%, Croat 16%, Other 2%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Marka = 100 pfeninga
Literacy rate: 98%
Calorie consumption: 3070 kilocalories
Bulgaria Located: Southeast Europe
Official name: Republic of Bulgaria
Formation: 1908 / 1947
Capital: Sofia
Population: 7.4 million / 173 people per sq mile (67 people per sq km)
Total area: 42,822 sq. miles (110,910 sq. km)
Languages: Bulgarian*, Turkish, Romani
Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 83%, Muslim 12%, Other 4%, Roman Catholic 1%
Ethnic mix: Bulgarian 84%, Turkish 9%, Roma 5%, Other 2%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Lev = 100 stotinki
Literacy rate: 98%
Calorie consumption: 2791 kilocalories
Croatia Located: Southeast Europe
Official name: Republic of Croatia
Formation: 1991 / 1991
Capital: Zagreb
Population: 4.4 million / 202 people per sq mile (78 people per sq km)
Total area: 21,831 sq. miles (56,542 sq. km)
Languages: Croatian
Religions: Roman Catholic 88%, Other 7%, Orthodox Christian 4%, Muslim 1%
Ethnic mix: Croat 90%, Other 5%, Serb 5%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Kuna = 100 lipa
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3130 kilocalories
Cyprus Located: Southeast Europe
Official name: Republic of Cyprus
Formation: 1960 / 1960
Capital: Nicosia
Population: 1.1 million / 308 people per sq mile (119 people per sq km)
Total area: 3571 sq. miles (9250 sq. km)
Languages: Greek, Turkish
Religions: Orthodox Christian 78%, Muslim 18%, Other 4%
Ethnic mix: Greek 81%, Turkish 11%, Other 8%
Government: Presidential system
Currency: Euro (new Turkish lira in TRNC) = 100 cents (euro); 100 kurus (Turkish lira)
Literacy rate: 98%
Calorie consumption: 2678 kilocalories
Czech Republic Located: Central Europe Official name: Czech Republic Formation: 1993 / 1993 Capital: Prague Population: 10.5 million / 345 people per sq mile (133 people per sq km) Total area: 30,450 sq. miles (78,866 sq. km) Languages: Czech, Slovak, Hungarian (Magyar) Religions: Roman Catholic 39%, Atheist 38%, Other 18%, Protestant 3%, Hussite 2% Ethnic mix: Czech 90%, Moravian 4%, Other 4%, Slovak 2% Government: Parliamentary system Currency: Czech koruna = 100 haleru Literacy rate: 99% Calorie consumption: 3305 kilocalories
Denmark Located: Northern Europe
Official name: Kingdom of Denmark
Formation: 950 / 1944
Capital: Copenhagen
Population: 5.6 million / 342 people per sq mile (132 people per sq km)
Total area: 16,639 sq. miles (43,094 sq. km)
Languages: Danish
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 95%, Roman Catholic 3%, Muslim 2%
Ethnic mix: Danish 96%, Other (including Scandinavian and Turkish) 3%, Faeroese and Inuit 1%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Danish krone = 100 øre
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3378 kilocalories
Estonia Located: Northeast Europe
Official name: Republic of Estonia
Formation: 1991 / 1991
Capital: Tallinn
Population: 1.3 million / 75 people per sq mile (29 people per sq km)
Total area: 17,462 sq. miles (45,226 sq. km)
Languages: Estonian, Russian
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 56%, Orthodox Christian 25%, Other 19%
Ethnic mix: Estonian 69%, Russian 25%, Other 4%, Ukrainian 2%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3163 kilocalories
Europe
Faroe Island
Finland Located: Northern Europe
Official name: Republic of Finland
Formation: 1917 / 1947
Capital: Helsinki
Population: 5.4 million / 46 people per sq mile (18 people per sq km)
Total area: 130,127 sq. miles (337,030 sq. km)
Languages: Finnish, Swedish, Sámi
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 83%, Other 15%, Orthodox Christian 1%, Roman Catholic 1%
Ethnic mix: Finnish 93%, Other (including Sámi) 7%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3240 kilocalories
France Located: Western Europe
Official name: French Republic
Formation: 987 / 1919
Capital: Paris
Population: 63.1 million / 297 people per sq mile (115 people per sq km)
Total area: 211,208 sq. miles (547,030 sq. km)
Languages: French, Provençal, German, Breton, Catalan, Basque
Religions: Roman Catholic 88%, Muslim 8%, Protestant 2%, Buddhist 1%, Jewish 1%
Ethnic mix: French 90%, North African (mainly Algerian) 6%, German (Alsace) 2%, Breton 1%, Other (including Corsicans) 1%
Government: Mixed presidential– parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3531 kilocalories
Germany Located: Northern Europe
Official name: Federal Republic of Germany
Formation: 1871 / 1990
Capital: Berlin
Population: 82.2 million / 609 people per sq mile (235 people per sq km)
Total area: 137,846 sq. miles (357,021 sq. km)
Languages: German*, Turkish
Religions: Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 33%, Other 30%, Muslim 3%
Ethnic mix: German 92%, Other European 3%, Other 3%, Turkish 2%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3549 kilocalories
Gibraltar
Greece Located: Southeast Europe
Official name: Hellenic Republic
Formation: 1829 / 1947
Capital: Athens
Population: 11.4 million / 226 people per sq mile (87 people per sq km)
Total area: 50,942 sq. miles (131,940 sq. km)
Languages: Greek, Turkish, Macedonian, Albanian
Religions: Orthodox Christian 98%, Muslim 1%, Other 1%
Ethnic mix: Greek 98%, Other 2%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 97%
Calorie consumption: 3661 kilocalories
Guernsey
Hungary Located: Central Europe
Official name: Hungary
Formation: 1918 / 1947
Capital: Budapest
Population: 10 million / 280 people per sq mile (108 people per sq km)
Total area: 35,919 sq. miles (93,030 sq. km)
Languages: Hungarian (Magyar)
Religions: Roman Catholic 52%, Calvinist 16%, Other 15%, Nonreligious 14%, Lutheran 3%
Ethnic mix: Magyar 90%, Roma 4%, German 3%, Serb 2%, Other 1%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Forint = 100 fillér
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3477 kilocalories
Iceland Located: Northwest Europe
Official name: Republic of Iceland
Formation: 1944 / 1944
Capital: Reykjavík
Population: 300,000 / 8 people per sq mile (3 people per sq km)
Total area: 39,768 sq. miles (103,000 sq. km)
Languages: Icelandic
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 84%, Other (mostly Christian) 10%, Roman Catholic 3%, Nonreligious 3%
Ethnic mix: Icelandic 94%, Other 5%, Danish 1%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Icelandic króna = 100 aurar
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3376 kilocalories
Ireland Located: Northwest Europe
Official name: Ireland
Formation: 1922 / 1922
Capital: Dublin
Population: 4.5 million / 169 people per sq mile (65 people per sq km)
Total area: 27,135 sq. miles (70,280 sq. km)
Languages: English, Irish Gaelic
Religions: Roman Catholic 87%, Other and nonreligious 10%, Anglican 3%
Ethnic: mix Irish 99%, Other 1%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3617 kilocalories
Italy Located: Southern Europe
Official name: Italian Republic
Formation: 1861 / 1947
Capital: Rome
Population: 60.8 million / 536 people per sq mile (207 people per sq km)
Total area: 116,305 sq. miles (301,230 sq. km)
Languages: Italian, German, French, Rhaeto-Romanic, Sardinian
Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Other and nonreligious 13%, Muslim 2%
Ethnic mix: Italian 94%, Other 4%, Sardinian 2%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3627 kilocalories
Latvia Located: Northeast Europe
Official name: Republic of Latvia
Formation: 1991 / 1991
Capital: Riga
Population: 2.2 million / 88 people per sq mile (34 people per sq km)
Total area: 24,938 sq. miles (64,589 sq. km)
Languages: Latvian, Russian
Religions: Other 43%, Lutheran 24%, Roman Catholic 18%, O rthodox Christian 15%
Ethnic mix: Latvian 59%, Russian 28%, Belarussian 4%, Other 4%, Ukrainian 3%, Polish 2%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Lats = 100 santimi
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 2923 kilocalories
Liechtenstein Located: Central Europe
Official name: Principality of Liechtenstein
Formation: 1719 / 1719
Capital: Vaduz
Population: 36,713 / 592 people per sq mile (229 people per sq km)
Total area: 62 sq. miles (160 sq. km)
Languages: German, Alemannish dialect, Italian
Religions: Roman Catholic 79%, Other 13%, Protestant 8%
Ethnic mix: Liechtensteiner 66%, Other 12%, Swiss 10%, Austrian 6%, German 3%, Italian 3%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Swiss franc = 100 rappen/centimes
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: Not available
Lithuania Located: Northeast Europe
Official name: Republic of Lithuania
Formation: 1991 / 1991
Capital: Vilnius
Population: 3.3 million / 131 people per sq mile (51 people per sq km)
Total area: 25,174 sq. miles (65,200 sq. km)
Languages: Lithuanian, Russian
Religions: Roman Catholic 79%, Other 15%, Russian Orthodox 4%, Protestant 2%
Ethnic mix: Lithuanian 85%, Polish 6%, Russian 5%, Other 3%, Belarussian 1%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Litas = 100 centu
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3486 kilocalories
Luxembourg Located: Northwest Europe
Official name: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Formation: 1867 / 1867
Capital: Luxembourg-Ville
Population: 500,000 / 501 people per sq mile (193 people per sq km)
Total area: 998 sq. miles (2586 sq. km)
Languages: Luxembourgish, German, French
Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant, Orthodox Christian, and Jewish 3%
Ethnic mix: Luxembourger 62%, Foreign residents 38%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3637 kilocalories
Macedonia Located: Southeast Europe
Official name: Republic of Macedonia
Formation: 1991 / 1991
Capital: Skopje
Population: 2.1 million / 212 people per sq mile (82 people per sq km)
Total area: 9781 sq. miles (25,333 sq. km)
Languages: Macedonian, Albanian, Turkish, Romani, Serbian
Religions: Orthodox Christian 65%, Muslim 29%, Roman Catholic 4%, Other 2%
Ethnic mix: Macedonian 64%, Albanian 25%, Turkish 4%, Roma 3%, Serb 2%, Other 2%
Government: Mixed presidential– parliamentary system
Currency: Macedonian denar = 100 deni
Literacy rate: 97%
Calorie consumption: 2983 kilocalories
Malta Located: Southern Europe
Official name: Republic of Malta
Formation: 1964 / 1964
Capital: Valletta
Population: 400,000 / 3226 people per sq mile (1250 people per sq km)
Total area: 122 sq. miles (316 sq. km)
Languages: Maltese, English
Religions: Roman Catholic 98%, Other and nonreligious 2%
Ethnic mix: Maltese 96%, Other 4%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 92%
Calorie consumption: 3438 kilocalories
Moldova Located: Southeast Europe
Official name: Republic of Moldova
Formation: 1991 / 1991
Capital: Chisinau
Population: 3.5 million / 269 people per sq mile (104 people per sq km)
Total area: 13,067 sq. miles (33,843 sq. km)
Languages: Moldovan, Ukrainian, Russian
Religions: Orthodox Christian 93%, Other 6%, Baptist 1%
Ethnic mix: Moldovan 84%, Ukrainian 7%, Gagauz 5%, Russian 2%, Bulgarian 1%, Other 1%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Moldovan leu = 100 bani
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 2707 kilocalories
Monaco Located: Southern Europe
Official name: Principality of Monaco
Formation: 1861 / 1861
Capital: Monaco-Ville
Population: 30,510 / 40680 people per sq mile (15646 people per sq km)
Total area: 0.75 sq. miles (1.95 sq. km)
Languages: French, Italian, Monégasque, English
Religions: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%, Other 5%
Ethnic mix: French 47%, Other 21%, Italian 16%, Monégasque 16%
Government: Mixed monarchical– parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: Not available
Montenegro Located: Southeast Europe
Official name: Montenegro
Formation: 2006 / 2006
Capital: Podgorica
Population: 600,000 / 113 people per sq mile (43 people per sq km)
Total area: 5332 sq. miles (13,812 sq. km)
Languages: Montenegrin, Serbian, Albanian, Bosniak, Croatian
Religions: Orthodox Christian 74%, Muslim 18%, Roman Catholic 4%, Other 4%
Ethnic mix: Montenegrin 43%, Serb 32%, Other 12%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 98%
Calorie consumption: 2887 kilocalories
Netherlands Located: Northwest Europe
Official name: Kingdom of the Netherlands
Formation: 1648 / 1839
Capital: Amsterdam; The Hague (administrative)
Population: 16.7 million / 1275 people per sq mile (492 people per sq km)
Total area: 16,033 sq. miles (41,526 sq. km)
Languages: Dutch, Frisian
Religions: Roman Catholic 36%, Other 34%, Protestant 27%, Muslim 3%
Ethnic mix: Dutch 82%, Other 12%, Surinamese 2%, Turkish 2%, Moroccan 2%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3261 kilocalories
Norway Located: Northern Europe
Official name: Kingdom of Norway
Formation: 1905 / 1905
Capital: Oslo
Population: 4.9 million / 41 people per sq mile (16 people per sq km)
Total area: 125,181 sq. miles (324,220 sq. km)
Languages: Norwegian (Bokmål “book language” and Nynorsk “new Norsk”), Sámi
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 88%, Other and nonreligious 8%, Muslim 2%, Pentecostal 1%, Roman Catholic 1%
Ethnic mix: Norwegian 93%, Other 6%, Sámi 1%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Norwegian krone = 100 øre
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3453 kilocalories
Poland Located: Northern Europe
Official name: Republic of Poland
Formation: 1918 / 1945
Capital: Warsaw
Population: 38.3 million / 326 people per sq mile (126 people per sq km)
Total area: 120,728 sq. miles (312,685 sq. km)
Languages: Polish
Religions: Roman Catholic 93%, Other and nonreligious 5%, Orthodox Christian 2%
Ethnic mix: Polish 98%, Other 2%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency Zloty: = 100 groszy
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3392 kilocalories
Portugal Located: Southwest Europe
Official name: Republic of Portugal
Formation: 1139 / 1640
Capital: Lisbon
Population: 10.7 million / 301 people per sq mile (116 people per sq km)
Total area: 35,672 sq. miles (92,391 sq. km)
Languages: Portuguese
Religions: Roman Catholic 92%, Protestant 4%, Nonreligious 3%, Other 1%
Ethnic mix: Portuguese 98%, African and other 2%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency Euro: = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 95%
Calorie consumption: 3617 kilocalories
Romania Located: Southeast Europe
Official name: Romania
Formation: 1878 / 1947
Capital: Bucharest
Population: 21.4 million / 241 people per sq mile (93 people per sq km)
Total area: 91,699 sq. miles (237,500 sq. km)
Languages: Romanian, Hungarian (Magyar), Romani, German
Religions: Romanian Orthodox 87%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 5%, Greek Orthodox 1%, Greek Catholic (Uniate) 1%, Other 1%
Ethnic mix: Romanian 89%, Magyar 7%, Roma 3%, Other 1%
Government: Presidential system
Currency New: Romanian leu = 100 bani
Literacy rate: 98%
Calorie consumption: 3487 kilocalories
San Marino Located: Southern Europe
Official name: Republic of San Marino
Formation: 1631 / 1631
Capital: San Marino
Population: 32,140 / 1339 people per sq mile (527 people per sq km)
Total area: 23.6 sq. miles (61 sq. km)
Languages: Italian
Religions: Roman Catholic 93%, Other and nonreligious 7%
Ethnic mix: Sammarinese 88%, Italian 10%, Other 2%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: Not available
Serbia Located: Southeast Europe
Official name: Republic of Serbia
Formation: 2006 / 2008
Capital: Belgrade
Population: 9.9 million / 331 people per sq mile (128 people per sq km)
Total area: 29,905 sq. miles (77,453 sq. km)
Languages: Serbian, Hungarian (Magyar)
Religions: Orthodox Christian 85%, Roman Catholic 6%, Other 6%, Muslim 3%
Ethnic mix: Serb 83%, Other 10%, Magyar 4%, Bosniak 2%, Roma 1%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Serbian dinar = 100 para
Literacy rate: 98%
Calorie consumption 2823 kilocalories
Slovakia Located: Central Europe
Official name: Slovak Republic
Formation: 1993 / 1993
Capital: Bratislava
Population: 5.5 million / 290 people per sq mile (112 people per sq km)
Total area: 18,859 sq. miles (48,845 sq. km)
Languages: Slovak, Hungarian (Magyar), Czech
Religions: Roman Catholic 69%, Nonreligious 13%, Other 13%, Greek Catholic (Uniate) 4%, Orthodox Christian 1%
Ethnic mix: Slovak 86%, Magyar 10%, Roma 2%, Czech 1%, Other 1%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption 2881 kilocalories
Slovenia Located: Central Europe
Official name: Republic of Slovenia
Formation: 1991 / 1991
Capital: Ljubljana
Population: 2 million / 256 people per sq mile (99 people per sq km)
Total area: 7820 sq. miles (20,253 sq. km)
Languages: Slovenian
Religions: Roman Catholic 58%, Other 28%, Atheist 10%, Orthodox Christian 2%, Muslim 2%
Ethnic mix: Slovene 83%, Other 12%, Serb 2%, Croat 2%, Bosniak 1%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3275 kilocalories
Spain Located: Southwest Europe
Official name: Kingdom of Spain
Formation: 1492 / 1713
Capital: Madrid
Population: 46.5 million / 241 people per sq mile (93 people per sq km)
Total area: 194,896 sq. miles (504,782 sq. km)
Languages: Spanish, Catalan, Galician, Basque
Religions: Roman Catholic 96%, Other 4%
Ethnic mix: Castilian Spanish 72%, Catalan 17%, Galician 6%, Basque 2%, Other 2%, Roma 1%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 98%
Calorie consumption: 3239 kilocalories
Sweden Northern Europe
Located: Official name Kingdom of Sweden
Formation: 1523 / 1921
Capital: Stockholm
Population: 9.4 million / 59 people per sq mile (23 people per sq km)
Total area: 173,731 sq. miles (449,964 sq. km)
Languages: Swedish, Finnish, Sámi
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 75%, Other 13%, Muslim 5%, Other Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 2%
Ethnic mix: Swedish 86%, Foreign-born or first-generation immigrant 12%, Finnish and Sámi 2%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Swedish krona = 100 öre
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3125 kilocalories
Switzerland Located: Central Europe
Official name: Swiss Confederation
Formation: 1291 / 1857
Capital: Bern
Population: 7.7 million / 501 people per sq mile (194 people per sq km)
Total area: 15,942 sq. miles (41,290 sq. km)
Languages: German, Swiss-German, French, Italian, Romansch
Religions: Roman Catholic 42%, Protestant 35%, Other and nonreligious 19%, Muslim 4%
Ethnic mix: German 64%, French 20%, Other 9.5%, Italian 6%, Romansch 0.5%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Swiss franc = 100 rappen/centimes
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption 3454 kilocalories
Ukraine Located: Eastern Europe
Official name: Ukraine
Formation: 1991 / 1991
Capital: Kiev
Population: 45.2 million / 194 people per sq mile (75 people per sq km)
Total area: 223,089 sq. miles (603,700 sq. km)
Languages: Ukrainian, Russian, Tatar
Religions: Christian (mainly Orthodox) 95%, Other 5%
Ethnic mix: Ukrainian 78%, Russian 17%, Other 5%
Government: Presidential system
Currency: Hryvna = 100 kopiykas
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: 3198 kilocalories
United Kingdom Located: Northwest Europe
Official name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Formation: 1707 / 1922
Capital: London
Population: 62.4 million / 669 people per sq mile (258 people per sq km)
Total area: 94,525 sq. miles (244,820 sq. km)
Languages: English, Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Irish Gaelic
Religions: Anglican 45%, Other and nonreligious 36%, Roman Catholic 9%, Presbyterian 4%, Muslim 3%, Methodist 2%, Hindu 1%
Ethnic mix: English 80%, Scottish 9%, West Indian, Asian, and other 5%, Northern Irish 3%, Welsh 3%
Government: Parliamentary system
Currency: Pound sterling = 100 pence
Literacy: rate 99%
Calorie consumption 3432 kilocalories
Vatican City Located: Southern Europe
Official name: State of the Vatican City
Formation: 1929 / 1929
Capital: Vatican City
Population: 836 / 4918 people per sq mile (1900 people per sq km)
Total area: 0.17 sq. miles (0.44 sq. km)
Languages: Italian, Latin
Religions: Roman Catholic 100%
Ethnic mix: The current pope is German, though most popes for the last 500 years have been Italian. Cardinals are from many nationalities, but Italians form the largest group. Most of the resident lay persons are Italian.
Government: Papal state
Currency: Euro = 100 cents
Literacy rate: 99%
Calorie consumption: Not available

Major rivers in Europe

Danube

Beginning in the Black Forest region of Germany, it flows across central Europe and the countries of Austria, Hungary, Croatia and Yugoslavia. It then forms the border between Romania and Bulgaria, turning north across Romania to eventually end in the Black Sea.

It's (1,771 miles) (2,850 km) in length, and one of the most significant commercial waterways on the continent.

Dnieper

Rising in the southwestern part of the Russian Federation, it flows generally south through Belarus, then southeast through Ukraine, ending in the Black Sea. Overall it's (1,420 miles) (2,285 km) in length.

Don

Beginning it the southwestern Russian Federation, to the south of Moscow, it flows southeasterly towards the Volga, then turns abruptly west, ending in the Sea of Azov. Overall it's (1,224 miles) (1,969 km) in length.

Elbe

Rising in the Czech Republic, the Elbe River then flows north through Germany, ending in the North Sea near Cuxhaven. It's (724 miles) (1,165 km) in length.

Loire

Recognized as the longest river in France, the navigable Loire begins in the foothills of the Massif Central, then flows north and west across the heartland of France, finally ending in the Bay of Biscay. It's (634 miles) (1,020 km) in length.

Oder

Rising in the rugged mountains of the eastern Czech Republic, it flows west and north through south-central Poland, eventually emptying into the Baltic Sea. It's (567 miles) (912 km) in length.

Po

Italy's longest river begins in the upper reaches of the Alps, flowing west to east across northern Italy, ending in the Adriatic Sea. It's (405 miles) (652 km) in length.

Rhine

Forming in the mountains of southeastern Switzerland, this legendary river flows west, forming Switzerland's northeastern border with Germany, then runs directly north through western Germany forming part of that country's border with France, then finally dissecting the Netherlands and ending in the North Sea.

Numerous tributaries and branches run in all directions, and in overall length is (820 miles) (1,319 km).

Rhone

Begin high in the Swiss Alps, this fast moving river flows into the eastern end of Lake Geneva, then south through south-eastern France, emptying into the Mediterranean Sea.

Small branches run in all directions, and in overall length, it's (300 miles) (485 km).

Shannon

Rising in northwestern Ireland, it flows south through a series of lakes, then turns west to eventually empty into the Atlantic Ocean. It's 230 miles (370 km) in length.

Tagus

The Tagus River rises in the central highlands of Spain, flowing southwest across Portugal, then south to Lisbon and the Atlantic Ocean. It's 626 miles (1,007 km) in length.

Volga

The Volga is the largest river in European Russia in terms of length, discharge, and watershed. It flows through central Russia, and is widely viewed as the national river of Russia. It's 3,692 km (2,294 mi) long.